Britain's Queen Elizabeth II praised the strength of London and Manchester after the "appalling attacks", in a Christmas message.
The longest reigning queen also paid tribute to her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who retired from regular royal duties this year.
The "powerful identities" of the capital and the northern English city had shone through after terrorist attacks as well as a devastating fire that destroyed the residential tower block Grenfell Tower in London, the Queen said.
The 91-year-old queen, was giving a televised address to the nation, which is also an essential part of a traditional Christmas in Britain.
The queen further said it had been a privilege to visit victims of the bomb attack at a pop concert in Manchester, as she was able to witness the "bravery and resilience of survivors' first-hand."
Queen Elizabeth, the world's longest reigning monarch, celebrated her platinum wedding anniversary in November. Philip retired from regular royal duties over the summer having carried out more than 22,000 solo engagements.
"Even Prince Philip has decided it's time to slow down a little - having, as he economically put it, 'done his bit'. But I know his support and unique sense of humour will remain as strong as ever," Queen Elizabeth said.
The royal family celebrated at a Christmas Day church service on their country estate in Sandringham.
Recently engaged Prince Harry and actress Meghan Markle also joined the Royal family for their traditional Christmas Day service at the Queen's Sandringham estate.
The royal Christmas broadcast dates back to King George V in 1932 when it was on the radio. It was first televised in 1957.