Subhas Chandra Bose was popularly known as ‘Netaji’. He was a freedom fighter who was born at Cuttack in Orissa on January 23, 1897. He was born to Janakinath Bose, who was a well-known lawyer, and Prabhavati Devi. Subhas Chandra Bose was a brilliant student from the very beginning of his schooling life. Netaji topped the matriculation examination. He completed his graduation from Presidency College in Kolkata and then went to England for higher studies in September 1919. He excelled in his studies and was selected for the Indian Civil Services, too. But Netaji had a different ambition and left the training and returned to India to be a part of the freedom struggle.
It is said that the Jallianwallah Bagh Massacre moved and disturbed him a lot, and after hearing about it he joined the Indian National Congress as a freedom fighter. Subash Chandra Bose was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi in his early days but later Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das impressed him so much that Subhas Chandra Bose regarded him as his political guru and guide. Subhas Chandra Bose was arrested several times for several reasons but was a free leader. He later went on to become the Mayor of Kolkata.
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Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was elected as the President of the INC in 1938 and 1939. In 1939, he formed his own party that went by the name Forward Block as his ideologies did not match with Mahatma Gandhi and other Congress leaders. Netaji had launched an all-India anti-British Campaign in September 1939. He was arrested in July of 1940 and was put under house arrest. But the British East India Company could not hold on to him and he disappeared from the house arrest and reached Berlin, Germany in 1941.
From there, he went on to form the Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauz. For the army, he recruited Indian prisoners of war and, in June of 1943, he visited Japan to get the support of the Japanese government to help India in the freedom struggle. On October 21, 1943, he became the commander-in-chief of the Indian National Army in Singapore and began his military struggle against the British. After this, he established the Provisional Government of Free India and also occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 1943.
In December 1944, the Indian National Army crossed the border of Burma and reached Kohima. They also invaded Imphal, but shortly after this, the Japanese forces were forced to surrender and this led to calling off the war. It is believed that Subhas Chandra Bose lost his life in a plane crash on August 18, 1945, near Taihoku airport, Formosa. Every year, January 23 is celebrated as Subhas Chandra Bose Jayanti in memory of the great freedom fighter.