Updated May 25th, 2024 at 10:50 IST

How CIA Operatives Employed 'Vampire Tactics' in the Fight Against Communism During Cold War

During the 1950s Cold War era, the CIA engaged in unconventional warfare against Huk rebels in the Philippines, employing Edward Lansdale's tactics.

Reported by: Yuvraj Tyagi
Despite debate over the veracity of these claims, Lansdale's legacy endures, serving as a cautionary tale of the murky intersections of myth and geopolitics. | Image:Republic

Manila: In the convoluted landscape of the Cold War, activities dealing with espionage were a common trait of warfare. However, a peculiar tale emerges from the Philippines, raising questions about the lengths to which the CIA went to counter communist insurgents. During the 1950s, the Central Intelligence Agency found itself embroiled in a clandestine conflict against the Huk rebels, who had emerged as a significant challenge to the established order following the country's liberation from Japanese occupation at the close of World War II.   

Edward G. Lansdale, a seasoned operative with a background in Philippine affairs from his service during World War II, became instrumental in devising unconventional strategies to quash the insurgency. Then a Captain in the US Air Force, Lansdale and his team delving deep into Filipino folklore, purportedly unearthed a potent tool: the aswang, a creature akin to a vampire in Western lore but possessing a more diverse and sinister appetite, feeding on organs, unborn children, and even phlegm.  


A Weaponized Mythology  

Venturing into rebel-held territories, the CIA operatives purportedly disseminated rumours of aswang sightings, capitalizing on the deep-seated fears ingrained in Philippine culture. Subsequently, reports emerged of rebels mysteriously vanishing, purportedly abducted and drained of blood, a modus operandi eerily reminiscent of vampire folklore. This psychological warfare tactic purportedly contributed to the erosion of rebel morale and territorial losses, ultimately leading to the decline of the Huk movement.


The Philippines, with its rich tapestry of over 7,000 islands and diverse cultural heritage, harbours a deep-rooted belief in supernatural entities like the Aswang, which have permeated local consciousness for centuries. The strategic exploitation of this mythology by the CIA underscores the intersection of psychological warfare and cultural sensitivity in the realm of covert operations.  

Edward Lansdale's tenure in the Philippines epitomized the utilization of unconventional methods to achieve strategic objectives, blurring the lines between folklore and warfare. Lansdale's memoirs and accounts from other sources paint a picture of a shadowy conflict where myth and reality intertwine, leaving a legacy of intrigue and speculation that continues to captivate historians and scholars to this day.  


The Legacy of Psychological Warfare  

While the veracity of these claims remains subject to debate, the episode sheds light on the lengths to which intelligence agencies were willing to go in their efforts to counter communist influence during the Cold War. Lansdale's pioneering use of psychological operations, including the exploitation of local superstitions, remains a cautionary tale of the ethical dilemmas inherent in asymmetrical warfare and covert intervention.

Credit- @MAC_VSOG

As the dust settled on the Huk insurgency, with its leaders subdued and the rebel movement quelled, the spectre of the aswang faded into memory. Yet, the legacy of Lansdale's unconventional tactics endures, serving as a testament to the enduring allure of folklore and the murky intersections of myth and geopolitics in the annals of history. 


Published May 25th, 2024 at 10:50 IST