Water pollution is one of the causes for the major water crisis that India has been facing for the past decade. The latest assessment by Water Aid, an international organization working for water sanitation and hygiene states that almost 80% of India’s surface water is polluted, out. Surface water in India, that is found in rivers, lakes, ponds and aquifers, provides drinking water. The top five most polluted rivers, according to a study, are Yamuna, Ganga, Sabarmati, Oshiwara and Damodar.
In addition, the polluted water bodies are hazardous for the population, as it brings with it, waterborne diseases like cholera, diarrhea and many more. On a global scale, almost 1.5 million children die due to water related diseases. One of the major reasons for the water pollution is the inflow of untreated industrial and domestic waste.
The rural population of India is also facing an adverse situation as they depend on the untreated water from rivers and wells, as their only source of drinking water. The effluents are also mixing into the groundwater table causing damage to crops. The food crops that are exposed to water with chemicals like mercury, arsenic, lead and cadmium affect the quality of the produce.
Countries like Japan have enforced pollution control laws that urge not just the government but also individuals to contribute in ensuring the better health of the water bodies across the states. India is also capable of making significant changes in all the sectors to curb the damage caused by the polluted water bodies. The local authorities should be at par with constructing and maintaining sewage treatment plants in their areas.
More plants and sewage lines must be constructed for enabling purification in water ways. The administration needs to enforce laws to regulate the effluents from the industrial areas. In communities, each household or community can install a treatment plant for all domestic effluents making sure that the water is treated at many levels before flowing into the rivers.
There is an urgent need to take steps to reduce water pollution as it is becoming a social evil affecting all the sects of citizenry. Water scarcity can be combatted with public participation. You can contribute too by taking the Har Ek Boond pledge to save water and make every drop of water count.
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